ORWELL IN PARIS
“I lived for about a year and a half in Paris, writing novels and short stories which no one would publish.” George Orwell
Eric Blair aka George Orwell (1903-50) visited Paris seven times between 1927 and 1945 as a tourist, aspiring expatriate writer and war correspondent. His longest stay was for eighteen months during 1928-29 when he lived in the Latin Quarter, at 6 Rue du Pot de Fer, in the 5th Arrondissement. This experience provided much of the material for his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London (1933) where the unnamed narrator, residing in a squalid hotel on the fictional Rue du Coq d’Or, experienced poverty and eventually finds work, with the help of his Russian friend Boris, as a plongeur:
My hotel was called the Hôtel des Trois Moineaux. It was a dark, rickety warren of five storeys, cut up by wooden partitions into forty rooms. The rooms were small and inveterately dirty, for there was no maid, and Madame F., the patronne, had no time to do any sweeping. The walls were as thin as matchwood, and to hide the cracks they had been covered with layer after layer of pink paper, which had come loose and housed innumerable bugs.
The Publishing History of Down and Out in Paris and London
“Nearly all the incidents described in Down and Out actually happened, but at different times, and I wove them together so as to make a continuous story.’” George Orwell
Down and Out in Paris and London always defied conventional classification by publishers. Commonly considered to be reportage, like two of Orwell’s other books from the 1930s – The Road to Wigan Pier (1937) and Homage to Catalonia (1938) – it is just is not that simple.
How best is the book to be categorised?
The (ambiguous) text on the original Gollancz dust jacket from 1933 positioned readers to expect a book that held their ‘attention far more closely than 90% of novels’. Does that suggest it is a novel, or non fiction that is particularly engaging?
When Penguin first published Down and Out in Paris and London (December 1940) ‘fiction’ was emblazoned on the familiar orange and white paperback cover design.
Orwell changed the names of the people he described in Down and Out in Paris and London but new research reveals how much he fictionalised them. It is already commonly known, from the introduction he wrote for the French translation, La Vache Enragée (1935), indicates it is not reportage:
“In As for the truth of my story, I think I can say that I have exaggerated nothing except in so far as all writers exaggerate by selecting. I did not feel I had to describe events in the exact order in which they happened, but everything I have described did take place at one time or another. At the same time I have refrained, as far as possible, from drawing individual portraits of particular people. All the characters I have described in both parts of the book are intended more as representative types of the Parisian or Londoner of the class to which they belong than as individuals.”
The original manuscript was written as a diary. There were to be many rewrites before it was finally published as Down and Out in Paris and London.
Eric Blair had submitted a 35 000-word manuscript, A Scullion’s Diary, to the publisher Jonathan Cape in late 1930. This version only covered the period in Paris when he worked as a plongeur. The feedback was generally positive but the diary format was deemed too fragmentary. The publisher offered some hope though by suggesting they would be positively disposed to publishing a reworked, longer version of the book. Enthused, Blair added his tramping experiences in England and by September 1931 had resubmitted the manuscript, now titled Days in London and Paris, which was again rejected.
Faber & Faber received A Scullion’s Diary by E. Blair on 14 December 1931. Their manuscript reader was T.S. Eliot with whom Blair had been corresponding (after an introduction from his friend and Adelphi editor, Richard Rees). Would he view it favourably? Finally, Blair’s first book appeared to be on the cusp of publication. Sadly, A Scullion’s Diary was rejected on 25 February 1932:
Dear Mr Blair,
I am sorry to have kept your manuscript. We did find it of very great interest, but I regret to say that it does not appear to me possible as a publishing venture. It is decidedly too short, and particularly for a book of such length it seems to me too loosely constructed, as the French and English episodes fall into two parts with very little to connect them.
I should think, however, that you should have enough material from your experience to make a very interesting book on Down-and-out life in England alone.
With many thanks for letting me see the manuscript.
Disheartened, Blair dumped the manuscript with Mabel Fierz (with whom he was having an affair) asking her to ‘throw it away’ but melodramatically recommending she ‘keep the paperclips’ as they had more value. Fierz became instrumental in finding her protege a literary agent and having Down and Out in Paris and London published. Her husband, Francis Fierz, knew Leonard Moore from his tennis club and his wife persuaded the sceptical agent to read the thrice-rejected manuscript. All this was unknown to Blair, who later discovered Moore had managed to interest Victor Gollancz, newly started in the publishing trade during 1928, in the manuscript. The left-wing publisher saw potential.
Blair suggested ‘The Lady Poverty’ or ‘Lady Poverty’ as a title after being unhappy with Gollancz’s proposal, ‘The Confessions of a Dishwasher’. By late 1932 there was a proof copy, ‘Confessions of a Down and Out’ by X. Blair definitely wanted it published pseudonymously, as he was ‘not proud of it’ writing to Moore, who was to be his literary agent until 1950, that he had:
“…no objection to the title, but do you think that “X” is a good pseudonym? The reason I ask is that if this book doesn’t flop as I anticipate, it might be better to have a pseudonym I could also use for my next one. I leave this to you & Mr Gollancz to decide.”
Blair went onto suggest possible pseudonyms to Moore that he used while ‘tramping’ such as:
“P. S. Burton, but if you don’t think this sounds a probable kind of name, what about Kenneth Miles, George Orwell, H. Lewis Allways. I rather favour George Orwell.”
Eventually, when the book was finally published, ‘Confessions of a Down and Out’ was not completely removed from the plates of Down and Out in Paris and London (1933).
Researching for my book, Orwell in Paris: The Making of a Writer, has led to eclectic reading about the French capital between the wars, especially the late 1920s. Peering vicariously into the deeper, hidden recesses of the radical bohemian, intellectual and literary life Paris offered has been a hedonistic pleasure (as was walking the city, trying to re-imagine those days). Scouring (the often digitised) archives for new sources has revealed more about Blair, before he was Orwell, than I ever expected to learn.
The generosity of others, in sharing their knowledge, has been humbling. I have made many friends through mutual passion and in some cases, shared journeys of discovery.
Another exciting aspect of this research has been that the bibliomaniac within has had a ridiculously good excuse to not just collect books, journals and other ephemera that aided my understanding of the period 1919-1945 but to branch out, reading books from (and about) the period commonly known as the Belle Époque. Scroll down to see the full extent of this bibliomania.
Please feel welcome to make further reading suggestions after perusing my collection.
Orwell, George, Down and Out in Paris and London, Victor Gollancz, 1933 (1500 copies printed in January)
Orwell, George, Down and Out in Paris and London, Victor Gollancz, 1933 Second Impression (500 more copies in the same month)
Orwell, George, Down and Out in Paris and London, Victor Gollancz, 1933 Third Impression (1000 copies printed for this third impression – all in January)
Orwell, George, La Vache Enragée, Paris: Gallimard, 1935 (First French edition of Down and Out in Paris and London translated from English by Gwen Gilbert and René-Noël Raimbault – 5500 copies printed)
Orwell, George, Down and Out in Paris and London, Harper and Brothers, 30th June 1933 (First American edition 1750 copies printed)
Orwell, George, Down and Out in Paris and London, Penguin, 1940. (55 000 copies; Penguin No. 297)
More First Editions
Barbusse, Henri (translated by Warre B. Wells), One Looks At Russia, London: J. M. Dent, 1931
Barbusse, Henri (translated by Vyyan Holland), Stalin: A New World Seen Through One Man, New York: International Publishers, 1935
Barbusse, Henri (translated by John Rodker), Inferno, London: Joiner & Steele, 1932. 263pp. (First British edition. 2000 copies printed)
Carco, Francis, Le Roman de François Villon, Paris: Plon, 1926. 301pp.
Cloud, Gerald W., John Rodker’s Ovid Press: A Bibliographic History, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2010. 152pp.
Emile-Bayard, Jean, The Latin Quarter: Past & Present (with reminiscences by well-known authors and writers), T. Fisher Unwin Ltd, 1926
Emile-Bayard, Jean, Montmartre: Past and Present, with reminiscences by well-known authors and writers), New York: Brentano’s, 1926
Gorkín, Julián, Días de Bohemia, Madrid: Ediciones Ulises (Colección Universal), 1930. 243pp. (Nota preliminar de Juan Andrade; prólogo de Henri Barbusse)
Gorkín, Julián, Ainsi fut assassiné Trotsky, Paris: Editions Self, 1948, 258pp. (tr. de l’espagnol par Jean Talbot)
Guazzo, Francesco Maria , Compendium Maleficarum, trans. by E. A. Ashwin, ed. with notes by Montague Summers, London: John Rodker. 1929. pp. (931/1275 copies)
Hamnett, Nina, The Laughing Torso: Reminisces, London: Constable & Co Ltd, 1932. 326pp.
Hemingway, Ernest, A Moveable Feast, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1964. 211pp. (First edition with A-3.64[H] on verso)
Hemingway, Ernest, A Moveable Feast: The Restored Edition, New York: Scribner Book Company, 2009, 240pp. (First edition with foreword by Patrick Hemingway; introduction by Seán Hemingway who edited this new edition)
Hoffman, Frederick John et al, The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1946
Huddleston, Sisley, Back to Montparnasse: Glimpses of Broadway in Bohemia, Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott, 1931
Huddleston, Sisley, Paris Salons, Cafes, Studios Being Social, Artistic and Literary Memories, Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott, 1928
Huddleston, Sisley, Articles De Paris: A Book of Essays, Macmillan, 1928 (includes the first English review of Ulysses)
Kiki (translated by Samuel Putnam with an introduction by Ernst Hemingway), The Education of a French Model: Kiki’s Memoirs, Boar’s Head Books, 1950. 185pp.
Lewis, D.B. Wyndham, François Villon, London: Peter Davies, 1928
Millant, Richard, La Drogue: Fumeurs et Mangeurs d’Opium, Paris: Librairie Africaine & Coloniale, 1910
Perrin, Elula, (translated by Harold J. Salemson), Women prefer women, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1979. 239pp.
Perrin, Elula, (translated by Harold J. Salemson), So Long As There Are Women, New York: William Morrow and Company, 1980. 215pp.
Roberti, Jacques (translated by Mary Ford), Houses of the Lost (Á la Belle de Nuit), London: T. Werner Laurie Ltd., 1933
Roberti, Jacques (translated by Samuel Putnam), Without Sin (Á la Belle de Nuit), New York: Convci-Friede Publishers,1932
Rodker, John, Adolphe 1920, The Aquila Press, 1929 (one of 850 numbered copies)
Rodker, John, Poems and Adolphe 1920, Carcanet Press, 1996. 220pp. (Edited with an introduction by Andrew Crozier)
Periodicals and Newspapers
A significant milestone on Eric Blair’s path to becoming a professional writer, after four months living in Paris, was the publication of his first-ever paid article on 6 October 1928 in Monde. Henri Barbusse (1873-1935) had founded Monde in June 1928, the month that Blair arrived in Paris. The French radical journal was published each Saturday until 1935, the year Barbusse died. ‘La Censure en Angleterre’ (Censorship in England) is not a memorable piece of writing but censorship was to become an important Orwellian theme to be revisited often in his fiction and nonfiction.
Blair published four articles in another serious, radical weekly newspaper, Le Progrès Civique: Journal de Perfectionnement Social. Founded in 1919 by Henri Dumay (1867-1935), the paper was sold every Saturday until 1939 and was reputedly popular with teachers and civil servants for its brief, scathing articles which were accompanied by caustic drawings.
Bordes, François, “Un lieu littéraire pour la réflexion politique: la revue Paru, (p. 76-91) in La Revue des revues n° 37, Ent’revues, 2005, 128pp.
Harrison, F. Bayford, ‘The Mystery of The Rue du Pot-de-Fer: A True Story’, The Strand Magazine, Newnes, 1892. Disbound
Le Progrès Civique, No. 496, 16th February, 1929, 30pp. (Eric Blair published four articles in this paper between December 1928 and January 1929. I have never been able to find them but do have scanned copies.)
Blair, E.A., ‘Une enquête du “Progrès Civique” en Angleterre: La grande misère de l’ouvrier britannique — 1. Le chômage’, Le Progrès Civique, No. 489, 29th December, 1928, 30pp. (scan)
Blair, E.A., ‘Une enquête du “Progrès Civique” en Angleterre: La grande misère de l’ouvrier britannique — 2. La journée d’un tramp’, Le Progrès Civique, No. 490, 5th January, 1929, 30pp. (scan)
Blair, E.A., ‘Une enquête du “Progrès Civique” en Angleterre: La grande misère de l’ouvrier britannique — 3. Les mendiants de Londres’, Le Progrès Civique, No. 491, 12th January, 1929, 30pp. (scan)
Blair, E.A., ‘Comment on exploite un peuple. — L’Empire britannique en Birmanie’, Le Progrès Civique, No. 507, 4th May, 1929, 30pp. (scan)
Monde, Numero 158, 13th June, 1931, 16pp. This edition above provides an example of the rag that Henri Barbusse edited. Thank you Chris Angel.
Blair, E.A., “La Censure en Angleterre”, Monde, Numero 18, 6th October, 1928 (A scan of Eric Blair’s first professional article)
Revue L’ARC N°94 George Orwell, 1984
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 1. Janvier 1944, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1944
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 4. Avril-Mai, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1945
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 6. Mars 1945, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1945
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 34. Septembre 1947, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1947
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 35. Octobre 1947, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1947
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 36. Novembre 1947, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1947
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 37. Décembre 1947, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1947
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 39. Février 1948, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1948
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 41. Avril 1948, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1948
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 45. Août 1948, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1948
Patri, Aimé (Rédacteur en chef) Paru: L’actualité littéraire, intellectuelle et artistique, Numéro 49. Décembre 1948, Broschur; Éditions Odile Pathé, Monaco, 1948
Salemson, Harold J., Tambour: Facsimile Edition, Volumes 1-8, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002 (generously gifted to me and inscribed by Steve Salemson)
Salemson, Harold J., Tambour, Issue 1, ND, 1929 (No. 60/200) 60pp.
Salemson, Harold J., Tambour, Issue 2, April 1929 (No. 62/200) 60pp.
Salemson, Harold J., Tambour, Issue 3, June 1929, 76pp.
Salemson, Harold J., Tambour, Issue 5, November 1929, 77pp. (A memorial issue for Anatole France)
Salemson, Harold J., Tambour, Issue 6, February 1930, 75pp.
Salemson, Harold J., Tambour, Issue 8, June 1930 (No. 61/250) 77pp. (The final issue)
Salemson, Harold J., Communisme de l’Oeil avec dix dessins de Touchagues, Paris: Editions Tambour, 1930. 29pp. in 13 x 17 cm format (#61 generously gifted to me by Steve Salemson)
Salemson, Harold J., “Why Do Americans Live in Europe?” transition #14 (Fall 1928)
Bifur, Number 1, Paris: Éditions du Carrefour, 1929. 1161/3000
Bifur, Number 3, Paris: Éditions du Carrefour, 1929. 2988/3000
Bifur, Number 4, Paris: Éditions du Carrefour, 1929, 328/3000
Bifur, Number 5, Paris: Éditions du Carrefour, 1930, 376/3000
Bifur, Number 6, Paris: Éditions du Carrefour, 1930, 1241/3000
Beach, Sylvia, Shakespeare and Company, Bison Books, 1991
Beach, Sylvia, The Letters of Sylvia Beach, New York: Columbia University Press, 2010. 376pp.
Begnal, Michael (editor), Joyce and the City: The Significance of Place (Irish Studies), New York: Syracuse University Press, 2002. 212pp.
Benjamin, Walter, Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism, Verso Books, 1997
Benjamin, Walter, The Writer of Modern Life: Essays on Charles Baudelaire, Belknap Press: An Imprint of Harvard University, 2006
Benstock, Shari, Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940, University of Texas Press (Kindle Edition), 2010. 367pp
Bouvet, Vincent, Paris Between the Wars: Art, Style and Glamour in the Crazy Years, Thames & Hudson, 2010
Brassaï (translated by Timothy Brent), Henry Miller: The Paris Years, New York: Arcade Press, 2011. 224pp.
Brassaï (translated by Jane Marie Todd), Happy Rock, University of Chicago Press, 2002. 184pp.
Breton, André, Nadja, Penguin, 1928/1999.160pp.
Burgess, Anthony, Ernest Hemingway, Tauris Parke, 2015
Buse, Peter; Hirschkop, Ken; McCracken, Scott; Taithe, Bertran, Benjamin’s Arcades: An unGuided tour, Manchester University Press, 2006
Calonne, David Stephen, Henry Miller (Critical Lives), Reaktion Books, 2014
Camus, Albert, Create Dangerously, Penguin Random House, 2018
Camus, Albert, Notebooks 1935-1942, Ivan R. Dee, 2010. 236pp.
Camus, Albert, Notebooks 1942-1951, Ivan R. Dee, 2010. 236pp.
Camus, Albert, Notebooks 1951-1959, Ivan R. Dee, 2008. 284pp.
Carco, Francis, From Montmartre To The Latin Quarter, London: Garant Richards & Humphrey Toulmin at the Cayme Press Ltd., 1929. Translated by Madeleine Boyd and illustrated by Carlegle
Cockfield, Jamie H., With Snow on their Boots: The Tragic Odyssey of the Russian Expeditionary Force in France During World War I, New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1999. 408pp.
Cohen, Lisa, All We Know: Three Lives, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013
Colette, The Pure and the Impure, New York: NYRB Classics, 2008. 208pp. (Translated by Professor Herma Briffault)
Craig, Sandy and Schwarz, Chris, Down and Out: Orwell’s Paris and London Revisited, Penguin, 1984
Cronin, Vincent, Paris, City of Light: 1919–1939, HarperCollins Publishers, 2017. 384pp.
Dazun, Edmond , Bannier, Lucien, Dictionnaire pratique d’esperanto: Francais-Esperanto – Esperanto-Francais, Paris: SAT Amikaro, 1974. second edition
Dearborn, Mary V., Henry Miller – The Happiest Man Alive, London: HarperCollins, 1991. 368pp.
Dearborn, Mary V., Queen of Bohemia, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1996. 365pp.
Douglas, Charles, Artist Quarter: Modigliani, Montmartre & Montparnasse, Pallas Athene, 2018
Dudley Andrew, Steven Ungar, Popular Front Paris and the Poetics of Culture, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2008, 449pp.
Dupouy, Alexandrer, City of Pleasure: Paris Between the Wars, Korero Press, 2019. 176pp.
Ferguson, Robert, Henry Miller – A Life, London: Hutchinson, 1992. 397pp.
Fitch, Noel Riley, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, W. W. Norton & Company, 1985. 448pp.
Fitch, Noel Riley, In Transition: A Paris Anthology – Writing and art from Transition magazine 1927-1930, Anchor, 1990
Fitch, Noel Riley, Anaïs: The Erotic Life of Anaïs Nin, Abacus, 1996. 525pp.
Flanner, Janet, Paris Was Yesterday: 1925-1939, Little, Brown Book Group, 2003. 320pp.
Ford, Hugh, Published in Paris American and British Writers, Printers, and Publishers in Paris, 1920-1939, Macmillan Publish Co., 1975. 453pp.
France, Anatole, The Opinions of Anatole France, London: The Bodley Head, 1928
Fussell, Paul, Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars, London: Oxford University Press, 1982. 246pp.
Gide, André, Back from the U.S.S.R., London: Secker & Warburg, 1937. 121pp. (First edition in DJ translated by Dorothy Bussy)
Gajdusek, Robert E., Hemingway’s Paris, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978. 182pp.
Glassco John, Memoirs of Montparnasse, New York: NYRB Classics, 2007. 296pp.
Glass, Charles, Americans in Paris: Life and Death under Nazi Occupation 1940–44, HarperPress, 2010
Gordon, Mel, Horizontal Collaboration: The Erotic World of Paris, 1920-1946, Feral House, 2015. 224pp.
Govenar, Alan and Mary Niles, Anne Morgan: Photography, Philanthropy & Advocacy (English and French Edition), The American Friends Of Blerancourt, 2016
Green, Julian, Paris (Marion Boyars Modern Classics), Marion Boyars Publishers Ltd, 2005
Green, Julian, Diary: 1928-57, New York: Carroll & Graf Inc., 1985. 314pp.
Gsell, Paul (ed), Anatole France and his Circle, The Bodley Head, 1922
Hansen, Arlen J., Expatriate Paris: A Cultural and Literary Guide to Paris of the 1920s, Skyhorse Publishing, 2012. 368pp.
Harding, James, Lost Illusons: Paul Leautaud and his World, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1974. 230pp.
Hooker, Denise, Nina Hamnett: Queen of Bohemia, Constable, 1986
Horne, Alistair, Seven Ages of Paris, Vintage, 2004
Jackson, Roger, Henry Miller: A Personal Archive, Valentine Miller, Tony Miller, Roger Jackson, Wm. E. Ashley Publishers, 1994 (1000 printed)
Johnson, Douglas & Madeleine, The Age of Illusion: Art and Politics in France: 1918-1940, Rizzoli, 1987. 160pp.
Kearney, Patrick J., The Paris Olympia Press, London: Black Spring Press Limited, 1987. 112pp. (No. 265/750 printed)
Klüver, Billy and Martin, Julie, Kiki’s Paris: Artists and Lovers 1900-1930, Harry N. Abrams, 1994. 264pp.
Latimer, Tirza True, Women Together/Women Apart: Portraits of Lesbian Paris, Rutgers University Press, 2005
Lee, Jennifer (editor), Paris In Mind: From Mark Twain to Langston Hughes, from Saul Bellow to David Sedaris: Three Centuries of Americans Writing About Their Romance (and Frustrations) with Paris, Vintage, 2003
Levy, Bernard Henri, Adventures on the Freedom Road: The French Intellectuals in the 20th Century, Harvill Press, 1995
Lewis, Elaine, Left Bank Waltz, Vintage, 2006
Lottman, Herbert R., The Left Bank : Writers, Artists and Politics from the Popular Front to the Cold War, The University of Chicago Press, 1998. 334pp.
MacNiven, Ian S., The Durrell-Miller Letters 1935-1980, London: Faber and Faber Ltd., 1980. 528pp.
May, James Lewis, Anatole France: The Man and His Work, London: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1924
McAlmon, Robert; Boyle, Kay, Being Geniuses Together, 1920-1930, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997
McCullough, David, The Greater Journey: Americans in Paris, Simon & Schuster Audio, 2011
McMillan, Douglas, Transition: The History of a Literary Era 1927-38, London: Calder and Boyars, 1975, 303pp.
Monnier, Adrienne, The Very Rich Hours of Adrienne Monnier, University of Nebraska Press, 1996
Paxton, Robert et al, Collaboration and Resistance: French Literary Life Under the Nazi Occupation, Five Ties Publishing, 2010. 448pp.
Peabody, Polly, Occupied Territory, London: The Cresset Press, 1941. 292pp.
Pearson, Neil, Obelisk: A History of Jack Kahane and the Obelisk Press, Liverpool University Press, 2008
Perlès, Alfred, My Friend Henry Miller, The John Day Company, 1956 (first edition)
Porter, Bern, Happy Rock, Literary Licensing, LLC, 2013. 166pp.
Pryce-Jones, David, Paris in the Third Reich: A History of the German Occupation, 1940-1944. Collins, 1981. 320pp.
Putnam, Samuel, Paris Was Our Mistress: Memoirs of a Lost and Found Generation, New York: Viking Press, 1947. 264pp.
Reynolds, Michael, Hemingway: The Paris Years, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999. 432pp.
Roe, Sue, In Montparnasse: The Emergence of Surrealism in Paris, from Duchamp to Dali, Fig Tree, 2018
Rood, Karen Lane (Editor), Dictionary of Literary Biography Volume 4: American Writers in Paris, 1920-1939, Gale Research Inc., 1980. 426pp.
Sante, Luc, The Other Paris: An Illustrated Journey Through a City’s Poor and Bohemian Past, Faber & Faber, 2017
Sobanet, Andrew, Generation Stalin: French Writers, the Fatherland, and the Cult of Personality, Kindle Edition: Indiana University Press, 2018. 363pp.
Souhami, Diana, No Modernism Without Lesbians, London: Head of Zeus, 2020
Starkie, Enid, Baudelaire, Pelican Biographies, Great Britain, 1971, 720pp.
Stearns, Harold, Confessions of a Harvard Man: Paris and New York in the 1920s & 30s, The Paget Press, 1984, 423pp.
Stern, Ludmila, Western Intellectuals and the Soviet Union, 1920-40: From Red Square to the Left Bank, Kindle Edition: Routledge, 2006. 276pp.
Sutton, Geoffrey H., Concise Encyclopedia of the Original Literature of Esperanto, Mondial, 2008
Turner, Frederick, Renegade: Henry Miller and the Making of the Tropic of Cancer, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2011
Van Vechten, Carl, The Splendid Drunken Twenties: Selections from the Daybooks, 1922-30, University of Illinois Press, 2007
Weber, Ronald, News of Paris: American Journalists in the City of Light Between the Wars, Ivan R Dee, Inc., 2007. 352pp.
Weiss, Andrea, Paris Was a Woman: Portraits from the Left Bank, Counterpoint, 2013
Wheeler, Robert, Hemingway’s Paris: A Writer’s City in Words and Images,Yucca, 2016. 179pp.
Wickes, George, Americans in Paris, New York: Da Capo Press, 1980. 302pp.
Wiser, William, The Crazy Years: Paris in the Twenties, Thames and Hudson, 1983
Wolff, Jetta Sophia, Historic Paris, London: John Lane Company, 1921
Bordes, François, La canne à pêche de Gerges Orwell, Corlevour, 2018. 112pp.
Bourquin-Cussenot, Paulette, Montparnasse Histoire d’ un Quartier de Paris, Paris: Chantenay, 1967. 159pp.
Canet, Nicole, Maisons closes 1860-1946, Editions Galerie Au Bonheur du Jour, 2009. pp.328. (Limited edition of 1500 hand-numbered copies in English)
Canet, Nicole (with a preface by Florent Paudeleux), Joyeux Polissons: Photographies Homoérotiques Clandestines – 1860-1930, Editions Galerie Au Bonheur du Jour, 2019. pp.220 (No. 386 of 500 hand-numbered copies in French/English)
Canet, Nicole, Le Chabanais, Histoire de la célèbre Maison close 1877-1946, Editions Galerie Au Bonheur du Jour, 2015. 368pp. (No. 32 of 950 numbered copies)
Canet, Nicole, Maisons Closes Objets – Peintures – Photographies – Dessins 1860-1946, Editions Galerie Au Bonheur du Jour, 2021. 480pp. (Limited edition No. 2 of 800 hand-numbered copies)
Daguerches, Henry, Consolata Fille Du Soleio, Paris: Librairie Lemercier, 1928 (#145 of 250)
En feuilletant les Archives du Quotidien: A Henri Dumay, par ses amis et collaborateur, 1927. 61pp.
Dunn, Avril, George Orwell, mon frère, L’Échoppe, 2018. 35pp (Translated into French by Patrice Cotensin; illustrated by Ernest Pignon-Ernest)
France, Anatole, Les Contes de Jacques Tournebroche, Chez Calmann-Lévy à Paris, 1921
Gorokhoff, Gérard et Korliakov, Andreï, Le Corps Expeditionnaire Russe en France et a Saonique 1916-1918, édition YMCA-PRESS, Hors série (textes bilingue Français-Russe), 2003. 656pp.
Jaulmes, Adrien, Sur Les Traces de George Orwell, Paris: Editions de Équateurs, 2019. 160pp.
Jeanneney, Jean-Noël et Guérout, Jeanne, Jours de Guerre, Paris: Arenes, 2013. 539pp
Korliakov, Andreï, Vers le Succès – de la Série: Emigration Russe en Photos, 1917-1947 – Album III, édition YMCA-PRESS (textes bilingue Français-Russe), 2005. 464pp
Mollgaard, Lou, Kiki: Reine de Montparnasse, Paris: R. Laffont, 1988. 333pp.
Morineau, Camille and Pesapane, Lucia, Pionnières. Artistes dans le Paris des années folles – Catalogue d’exposition, Paris Flammarion, 2022.
Orwell, George, La Vache Enragée, Paris: Gallimard, 1935 (First French edition of Down and Out in Paris and London translated from English by Gwen Gilbert and René-Noël Raimbault (5500 copies printed)
Orwell, George, La Vache Enragée, Gallimard, 1957. 289pp. (La Vache Enragée literally means The Raging Cow and this French edition of Down and Out in Paris and London was translated from English by Gwen Gilbert and René-Noël Raimbault)
Orwell, George, Dans la dèche à Paris et à Londres, Editions Champ Libre, 1982. 278pp. (Second French edition of Down and Out in Paris and London translated from English by Michel Pétris)
George Orwell: Correspondance avec son traducteur René-Noël Raimbault 1934-1935, édition bilingue français-anglais, Editions Jean-Michel Place, 2006. 141pp.
Orwell, George, Tragédie Birmane, Nagel, August 1946. 342pp. (First French edition of Burmese Days translated from English by Guillot de Saix – 7800 copies printed)
Orwell, George, Et Vive L’Aspidistra!, Gallimard, 1960, 332pp. (First French edition of Keep the Aspidistra Flying translated from English by Yvonne Davet – No. 31 of 35 numbered copies)
Orwell, George, Et Vive L’Aspidistra!, Paris: Editions Champ Libre, 1982. 340pp (Second French edition of Keep the Aspidistra Flying translated from English by Yvonne Davet)
Orwell, George, La Quai de Wigan, Paris: Editions Champ Libre, 1982. 260pp. (First French edition of The Road to Wigan Pier translated from English by Michel Pétris)
Orwell, George, La Catalogne Libre, Gallimard, 1955. 302pp. (First French edition of Homage to Catalonia translated from English by Yvonne Davet – No. 52 of 60 numbered copies)
Orwell, George, Hommage a La Catalogne, Paris: Editions Champ Libre, 1982. 296pp (Second French edition of Homage to Catalonia translated from English by Yvonne Davet)
Orwell, George, Journal D’Un Anglais Moyen, Amiot Dumont, 1952. 240pp. (First French edition of Coming Up For Air translated from English by Claude de Leschaux and serialised in Le Monde during August-September 1952)
Orwell, George, Essais Choisis, Gallimard, 1960, 304pp (First French trade edition of selected essays translated with a preface by Philip Thody)
Orwell, George, Les Animaux Partout!, Odile Pathé, 15 October 1947, (First French edition of Animal Farm translated by Sophie Dévil, preface by Jean Texcier – 5000 copies printed)
Orwell, George, Les Animaux Partout!, Odile Pathé, 15 October 1947, (First French edition of Animal Farm translated by Sophie Dévil, preface by Jean Texcier – 5000 copies printed) Contemporary binding in full green fabric, guards and contreplats of handmade paper, preserved covers, marbled.
Orwell, George, Les Animaux Partout!, Odile Pathé, 1948, (French magazine format edition by Réalités Littéraires Animal Farm translated by Sophie Dévil)
Orwell, George, La République des Animaux, Gallimard, 12 June 1964. 160pp. June (One of 31 copies printed on pure thread vellum in original glassine wrapper)
Orwell, George, La Ferme des Animaux, Ivrea, Champ Libre, June 1981. 113pp. (French edition translated from English by Jean Queval)
Orwell, George, La Ferme des Animaux, Paris: Folio, 2004. 158pp. (Translated from English by Jean Queval)
Orwell, George, 1984, Gallimard, Paris, 1950. 374pp. (First French trade edition of 1984 translated from English by Amélie Audiberti)
Philippe, Charles Louis, (Preface by T.S. Eliot), Bubu of Montparnasse, New York: Boar’s Head Books, 1950. 158pp.
Renaud, Alexandre, La fiancée du Holm, Monaco, Editions Odile Pathé, 1946. 171pp
Roberti, Jacques, Á la Belle de Nuit, Albin Michel, 1931. 384pp.
Yrondy, Pierre, Un crime. Les fusillés de Vingré, L’oiseau de Minerve – Soissonais 14-18, 1999 (1924)
Yrondy, Pierre (préface de Victor Méric), Sept ans d’agonie: Le Martyre de Sacco et de Vanzetti, Éditions Prima, 1927. 176pp.
Le MonT-Parnasse Hebdomadaire International, 1 September 1928. 4pp.
Yrondy, Pierre, L’entôleuse, L’Esprit Parisien, 1929 (Collection de la Garçonne, n° 84)
Yrondy, Pierre, “Maroussia le Mont Parnasse Ignore” et Le Sourire n°690, 1930
Yrondy, Pierre, “Superstition” et Le Sourire n°691, 1930
Yrondy, Pierre, “Souvenirs par Mont Parnasse” et Le Sourire n°694, 1930
Yrondy, Pierre, “La Dame Qui Reve” et Le Sourire n°697, 1930
Yrondy, Pierre, “Piments” et Le Sourire n°703, 1930
Yrondy, Pierre, Épouvantes, Paris: Éditions Baudinière, 1932. 218pp.
Yrondy, Pierre, De la Cocaïne Aux Gaz!!!, Paris: Éditions Baudinière, 1934
Yrondy, Pierre, Les Aventures de Thérèse Arnaud des Services Secrets Français n° 1: “Deux Héros Dans la Nuit”, Paris: Éditions Baudinière, 1934. 32pp.
Yrondy, Pierre, Marius Pégomas Détective Marseillais n° 1: “Les Gangsters de la Joliette”, Paris: Éditions Baudinière, 1946. 32pp.
Yrondy, Pierre, Marius Pégomas Détective Marseillais n° 2: “Le Crime de l’étang de Berre”, Paris: Éditions Baudinière, 1946. 32pp.
Yrondy, Pierre, Marius Pégomas Détective Marseillais n° 3: “Le trafiquant d’opium”, Paris: Éditions Baudinière, 1936. 32pp.
Yrondy, Pierre, The Adventures of Marius Pegomas Marseille Detective, Black Coat Press, Kindle Edition, 2018
Yrondy, Pierre, The Adventures of Therese Arnaud of the French Secret Service (French Mystery), Black Coat Press, Kindle Edition, 2013
NOTE: The following fascicles were illustrated by Édouard Yrondy, who was an artist and Pierre Yrondy’s father. It explains why Pierre had a foot in the door for his own series of nearly 100 x 32 page instalments during the 1920s.
de Kerlecq, Jean, Les Prodigieuses Aventures de Sidi Beccali: Les Compagnons de la Mort Noir (Les Beaux Romans d’Aventures N° 3), Paris: France-Édition, 1922. 32pp
de Kerlecq, Jean, Les Prodigieuses Aventures de Sidi Beccali: Les Démons Verts (Les Beaux Romans d’Aventures N° 5), Paris: France-Édition, 1922. 32pp
Le Moine, René, Jacques le Balafré: Le Secret de Jean Mayeux (Les Beaux Romans d’Aventures N° 102), Paris: France-Édition, 1924. 32pp
Idiers, Marcel, Jean Dalbret – Roi des Détectives: Bas Le Masque (Les Beaux Romans d’Aventures N° 140), Paris: France-Édition, 1924. 32pp
Mauvrac, Julien, La Guerre des Gouffres: L’Océan de Fer (Les Beaux Romans d’Aventures N° 163), Paris: France-Édition, 1924. 32pp
Clavigny, Georges, Les Rois des Boufftoucrus: Évasions Sur Évasions (Les Beaux Romans d’Aventures N° 167), Paris: France-Édition, 1924. 32pp
Photography and Art
Allan, Tony, Americans In Paris: An Illustrated Account Of The Twenties and Thirties, Chicago: Contemporary Books, Inc., 1977. 208pp.
Aubenas, Sylvie and and Bajac, Quentin, Brassaï: Paris Nocturne, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2013. 312pp.
Atget, Eugène, Atget: Postcards of a Lost Paris, MFA Publications, 2017
Aury, Bernard, La delivrance de Paris, 19-26 aout 1944, Paris: Arthaud, 1945. 127pp.
Benjamin, Roger, Orientalism: Delacroix to Klee, Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1997. 259pp.
Bouqueret, Christian, Germaine Krull: Photographie 1924-1936, Musées d’Arles, 1988. 155pp.
Brassaï and Morand, Paul, Paris After Dark, Thames & Hudson, 1987. 96pp.
Brassaï, Gyula Halasz, The Secret Paris of the 30’s, New York: Pantheon Books, 1977. 192pp.
Deedes-Vincke, Patrick, Paris: The City and Its Photographers, Boston: Bullfinch Press. 1992. 144pp.
Eparvier, Jean, Paris Sous La Botte des Nazis, Paris: Aux Editions Raymond Schall, 1944. 100pp.
Flammarion, Ernest, Paris: 285 Photographies, Flammarion, 1931. 212pp.
Franck, Dan, The Bohemians: The Birth Of Modern Art: Paris 1900-1930, Orion Pub Co: New Edition, 2002. 448pp.
Galassi, Peter, Brassaï, Fundación Mapfre, 2018. 368pp.
Gautrand, Jean-Claude, Brassaï, Paris (25th Anniversary Special Editions), Taschen, 2008
Gautrand, Jean-Claude, Atget, Eugène: Paris, Taschen, 2016. 672pp.
Grenier, Roger, Brassaï (Photofile), Thames & Hudson, 2014. 144pp.
Holm, David George, Drawing Paris, Jane Curry Publishing, 2010. 220pp.
Kertész,André, J’Aime Paris Photographs Since the Twenties, Grossman Publishers, 1974
Kertész,André, Andre Kertesz, Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges-Pompidou, 1977 (Published in conjunction with an exhibition held at the Centre National d’Art et de Culture Georges-Pompidou, 9th Dec. 1977-30th Jan. 1978)
Krull, Germaine, 100 X Paris, Berlin-Westend: Verlag der Reihe, 1929. 131pp. (First edition in German French and English)
Le Goffic, Charles, Ensemble of the Decorative Work of Jean-Julien Lemordant, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1919 (facsimile printed in India by Pranava Books)
Lottman, Herbert R., Man Ray’s Montparnasse, Harry N. Abrams, 2001
Rauschenberg, Christopher, Paris Changing: Revisiting Eugene Atget’s Paris, Princeton Architectural Press, 2016
Robertson, Nichole, Literary Paris: A Photographic Tour, Chronicle Books LLC, 2019. 128pp.
Salmon, André, Modigliani – A Memoir, New York: Jonathan Cape Ltd., 1961
Scott, Clive, Street Photography: From Atget to Cartier-Bresson, London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, 2007
Stettner, Louis, Sous le ciel de Paris, French and European Publications Inc., 2016. 248pp.
Truc, Gonzague, Le Quartier St Victor et le Jardin des Plantes, Firmin-Didot, 1930. 114pp.
Warehime, Marja, Brassaï: Images of Culture and the Surrealist Observer, Louisiana State University Press, 1998
Zola, Émile, Zola: Photographer, HarperCollins, 1989. 184pp.
Baxter, John, The Golden Moments of Paris: A Guide to the Paris of the 1920s, Museyon Guides, 2014. 272pp.
Baxter, John, Montparnasse: Paris’s District of Memory and Desire, HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2017. 272pp.
Cahill, Susan, The Streets of Paris: A Guide to the City of Light Following in the Footsteps of Famous Parisians Throughout History, St. Martin’s Press, 2017
Cook’s Handbook To Paris, Simpkin Marshall Limited, 1929. 286pp.
Cook’s Motor Tours, How to See Paris: It’s Environs & the Battlefields, Thomas Cook, 1929
Garance, Jacques; Ratton, Maud, Secret Paris, Jonglez Publishing, 2017
Leconte, A., Indicateur des Rues Paris Metro, Guide Pratique Pour Voyager dans Paris, August, 1929, 165pp.
Lesbros, Dominique (Simon Beaver Translator), Curiosities of Paris: an Idiosyncratic Guide to Overlooked Delights… Hidden in Plain Sight, Little Bookroom, 2017
Renault, Olivier, Montparnasse – les lieux de légende (Paris guides illustrés et thématiques), PARIGRAMME, 2013
Reynolds, Bruce, Paris With the Lid Lifted, New York: G. Sully & Company, 1927. 281pp.
Thackeray, William Makepeace, The Paris Sketch Book, The Irish Sketch Book and Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo, Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1903
Apollinaire, Guillaume, Zone: Selected Poems, NYRB Poets, 2015
Baudelaire, Charles, (translated by Edward K. Kaplan), The Parisian Prowler Le Spleen de Paris, Petits Poemes en Prose, The University of Georgia Press, 1997. 154pp.
Baudelaire, Charles, Flowers of Evil: A Selection (English and French Edition), New Directions, 1955
Baudelaire, Charles (translated by Greg Boyd), La Fanfarlo, Donald S. Ellis: Creative Arts Book Company, 1986. 127pp.
Baudelaire, Charles, Twenty Prose Poems (French and English Edition), City Lights Publishers, 2001
Bonner, Anthonny (translator), The Complete Works of François Villon, New York: Bantam Books, 1960. 230pp. (with an introduction by Carlos Williams)
Miller, Henry, The Time of the Assassins: A Study of Rimbaud, New Directions, 1962
Pascolini-Campbell, Claire, Villon in English Poetry: Translation and Influence, Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer Ltd., 2018. 224pp.
Barnes, Djuna, Ladies Almanack, Martino Fine Books, 2016
Cocteau, Jean, Opium: The Diary of His Cure, Peter Owen Publishers, 2013. 244pp.
Colette, The Pure and the Impure, New York: NYRB Classics, 2000,.190pp. (originally published in 1932 as Le Pur et l’impur)
Farrere, Claude (translated by Samuel Putnam), Black Opium: Ecstasy of the Forbidden, Ronin Publishing, 2016. 200pp.
Farrere, Claude; Dubut de Laforest (translated by John Baxter), Morphine/My Lady Opium, Harper Perennial, 2010
France, Anatole (translated by B. Drillien) The Amethyst Ring, London: The Bodley Head Limited, 1924. 308pp.
France, Anatole, Marguerite, London: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1921
France, Anatole, The Gods Are Athirst, London: The Bodley Head, 1927
France, Anatole, Thais, London: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1928
France, Anatole, Mother of Pearl, London: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1929
France, Anatole, The Red Lily, London: The Bodley Head 1930
Hemingway, Ernest, The First Forty Nine Stories, Arrow Books Ltd, 1994
Joyce, James, Ulysses, Dover Publications, 2009. 752pp. (An unabridged republication of the original Shakespeare and Company edition, published in Paris by Sylvia Beach, 1922)
Joyce, James, Ulysse, Paris: Gallimard, 1930. 870pp. (third edition)
Miller, Henry, Black Spring, Paris: Obelisk, 1936. First Edition
Miller, Henry, Black Spring, Paris: Obelisk, Feb. 1938. Second Printing
Miller, Henry, Tropic of Cancer, Paris: Obelisk, Feb. 1939. Fifth Printing
Miller, Henry, Paris 1928, Indiana University Press, 2012. 168pp.
Miller, Henry, Sextet, New Directions, 2010
Schwob, Marcel, The Book of Monelle, Kindle Edition: Wakefield Press, 2020. 96pp.
Schwob, Marcel, The King in the Golden Mask, Kindle Edition: Wakefield Press, 2017. 128pp.
Schwob, Marcel, Imaginary Lives, Wakefield Press, 2018. 192pp.
Schwob, Marcel, Double Heart, Snuggly Books, 2020. 290pp.
Schwob, Marcel, The Assassins: and Other Stories, Snuggly Books, 2020, 148pp.
Schwob, Marcel, Spicilege, Wakefield Press, 2022. 224pp.
The World of Marcel Proust
Albaret, Celeste, Monsieur Proust (New York Review Books Classics), NYRB Classics, 2003. 456pp.
Bales, Richard (ed), The Cambridge Companion to Proust (Cambridge Companions to Literature), Cambridge University Press, 2001. 266pp.
Beistegui, Miguel de, Proust As Philosopher, New York: Routledge, 2012. 130pp.
Bernard, Anne–marie, The World of Proust as Seen by Paul Nadar, MIT Press, 2004. 158pp.
Carter, William C., Proust in Love, Yale University Press, 2006. 280pp.
Caws, Mary Ann, Marcel Proust: OVERLOOK ILLUSTRATED LIVES, New York: Overlook Duckworth, 2005. 112pp.
Goncourt, Edmond & Jules Goncourt, Pages From The Goncourt Journals, New York Review Books Classics, 2006. 472pp. (translated by Robert Baldick with an introduction from Geoff Dyer)
Foschini, Lorenza, Proust’s Overcoat, London: Portobello Books, 2010. 160pp.
Heuet, Stéphane, Remembrance of Things Past: Combray, New York: Nantier Beall Minoustchine Publishing, 2001. 48pp.
Heuet, Stéphane, Remembrance of Things Past: Within a Budding Grove (Part 1), New York: Nantier Beall Minoustchine Publishing, 2008. 48pp.
Heuet, Stéphane, Remembrance of Things Past: Within a Budding Grove (Part 2), New York: Nantier Beall Minoustchine Publishing, 2002. 48pp.
Heuet, Stéphane, Remembrance of Things Past: Swann in Love, New York: Nantier Beall Minoustchine Publishing, 2007. 48pp.
Karpeles, Eric, Paintings in Proust: A Visual Companion to ‘In Search of Lost Time’, Thames and Hudson Ltd, 2017. 360pp.
Landy, Joshua, Philosophy As Fiction: Self, Deception, and Knowledge in Proust, Oxford University Press, 2009. 268pp.
Maurois, Andre, The World Of Marcel Proust, New York: Harper & Row, 1974. 288pp.
Moss, Howard, The Magic Lantern of Marcel Proust: A Critical Study of Remembrance of Things Past, Pennyslvania: Paul Dry Books, 2012. 124pp.
Muhlstein, Anka, Monsieur Proust’s Library, New York: Other Press, 2012. 160pp.
Neugroschel, Joachim, The Complete Short Stories of Marcel Proust, New York: Cooper Square Publishing, LLC, 2003. 224pp. (Foreward by Roger Shattuck)
Proust, Marcel, Proust on Art and Literature, New York: Carroll & Graf, 1997. 416pp.
Proust, Marcel; Curtiss, Mina (Translator), Letters of Marcel Proust, Helen Marx Books, 2006. 564pp.
Proust, Marcel; Prendergast, Christopher (ed), In Search of Lost Time: The Way By Swann’s; In the Shadow of Young Girls; The Guermantes Way; Sodom and Gomorrah; The Prisoner and the Fugitive; Finding Time Again (6 Volumes), Allen Lane: The Penguin Press, London, 2002
Shattuck, Roger, Proust’s Way: A Field Guide to In Search of Lost Time, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001. 288pp.
Tadie, Jean-Yves; Cameron, Euan (Translator), Marcel Proust, Penguin, 2001.1016 pp.
Watt, Adam, The Cambridge Introduction to Marcel Proust (Cambridge Introductions to Literature), Cambridge University Press, 2011. 154pp.
White, Edmund, Marcel Proust: A Life (Penguin Lives), New York: Penguin, 2009. 176pp.